Several references are absolutely critical for the correct elucidation of this seemingly purposefully obscure allusion and archaism.The first is in a document called the Nahum ' by the Romans either in 63 BC under Pompey because they wished to ingratiate themselves with the People; nor by Herod for the same reason in 37 BC who, Josephus tells us, actually had the soldiers paid out of his own purse to expressly avoid such a happenstance.
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That leaves us only Vespasian and his son Titus to satisfy this characterization who did, in fact, plunder the Temple in 70 CE and used the proceeds afterwards to pay for the abomination, now famously referred to worldwide as ' than this extremely telling allusion and this is what is meant by a proper appreciation of 'the internal data' being frustrated or rendered meaningless by inept and/or over-inflated claims for and reliance upon '' (known to have been carried out by the Romans) and the wholesale and wanton destruction wrought by these foreign invaders.
It has likewise been pointed out by numerous commentators - but seemingly to little avail - that this is Roman military practice, not Hellenistic or Greek - and, specifically, Imperial Roman military practice from Augustus' time forward since the Emperor, whose bust was on the standards, had commencing in that period been deified and worshipped as a God.
It has been my position from the beginning of my work (the 70's), in a situation of the kind represented by the materials and discoveries at Qumran, when there is a contradiction between the results of techniques such as these and 'the Internal Data' - meaning, what the documents themselves say which is what my books generally focus on - then '' where the Scrolls are concerned?
Unfortunately, the outside observer must actually read the documents themselves to grasp this - which first of all are not easy for the non-specialist (to say nothing of for the 'specialist') to know these.
Primarily these consist of the most important allusions at Qumran (a term 'scholars' generally use when referring to the Scrolls).